Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance: randomized trial

2023 article from The BMJ.

In this 2018 trial, participants lost 12% bodyweight through caloric restriction, and were then given a high, medium, or low carb diet. Those on the high and medium carb diets had to maintain a much more calorically restricted diet in order to maintain their body weight. So are all calories equal?

“Among participants in the highest third of pre-weight loss insulin secretion, the difference between the low and high carbohydrate diet was 308 kcal/d in the intention-to-treat analysis and 478 kcal/d in the per protocol analysis (P<0.004). Ghrelin was significantly lower in participants assigned to the low carbohydrate diet compared with those assigned to the high carbohydrate diet (both analyses).”